RFRP-1 is a mammalian ortholog of avian gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH). RFRP-1 and other RF-amide family peptides activate their own receptor, GPR147. RFRP-1 exhibits anorexigenic, anti-fertility, and anxiogenic activities. RFRP-1-secreting neurons are stress activated and inhibit the secretion of gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In vivo, this peptide inhibits reproductive behavior, decreases food intake, and increases anxiety behavior in an oxytocin-mediated manner.