2-Hydroxy estradiol (2-OH E2) is a cytochrome P450 metabolite of estradiol with low affinity for estrogen receptors. 2-OH E2 exhibits anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, mitogenic, and potentially anti-angiogenic activities. In vitro, 2-OH E2 decreases release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In hippocampal HT22 cells, 2-OH E2 decreases cellular lipid peroxidation and cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, 2-OH E2 displays mitogenic effects on vascular smooth muscle cells after conversion to methoxyestradiols and catecholestradiols via cytochrome P450 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes. Similar compound 2-methoxy estradiol (2-ME2) has achieved considerable attention as an anticancer chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic agent through inhibition of the HIF-1α pathway.