Diltiazem is a benzothiazepine-type compound that acts as an inhibitor of L-type Ca2+ channels. Diltiazem exhibits anti-arrhythmic, anti-anginal, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities. In animal models, diltiazem inhibits expression of IL-1β and CCL-12 and prevents formation of aortic aneurysms. In animal models of ischemia/reperfusion, diltiazem prevents dephosphorylation of connexin43 gap junction proteins. This compound may also inhibit cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, which play a role in motor neuron excitability.