Dihydrosanguinarine (DHS) is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that is a metabolite of sanguinarine. This compound exhibits a wide variety of antimicrobial activities (anti-parasitic, antifungal, and antibacterial) as well as anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. DHS is active against Leishmania, Botrytis, Erysiphe, Candida, and various gram positive and gram negative bacteria including MRSA. In leukemia cells, DHS induces dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in apoptosis and necrosis. DHS also binds DNA sequences containing alternating G and C base pairs. In vitro, DHS also inhibits LPS-induced production of NO and IL-6 and inhibits phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38.