Oligomycin A is a macrolide antibiotic initially produced by several species of Streptomyces. Oligomycin A inhibits mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase, binding the F0 subunit, inhibiting ATP synthesis. Oligomycin A exhibits antifungal activity against species of Aspergillus, Alternaria, Botrytis, and Phytophthora; it also displays antibacterial efficacy against a variety of bacteria. Additionally, this compound displays anticancer potential, as it triggers inositol-requiring enzyme a (IRE1) signaling in cervical cancer cells, resulting in XBP1 splicing, CHOP expression, DR5 upregulation, and ultimately apoptosis. Oligomycin also alters expression of Bcl-2 proteins in glioma cells.