Isoflurane is an anesthetic most commonly used in veterinary medicine. Isoflurane exhibits cardiomodulatory, neuromodulatory, and pro-inflammatory activities. In diabetic rats, isofluorane decreases cardiac force and intracellular Ca2+ amplitude. Isoflurane also increases IL-6 and NF-κB levels in glioma cells and microglia. In other cellular models, isoflurane inhibits L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel currents at resting membrane potential. Additionally, isofluorane binds and modulates signaling by ATP synthase and NADH dehydrogenase. Isoflurane also inhibits delayed rectifier and A-type K+ channels and NMDA receptors, activates Ca2+ ATPase and ATP-sensitive K+ channels, and potentiates GABA-A and glycine (GlyR) receptors.