Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Ketorolac inhibits COX-1 and COX-2. In vivo, administration of ketorolac prevents the spinal injury-induced increase of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) levels and decreases activation of spinal astrocytes, resulting in decreased allodynia. In spinal neurons, ketorolac decreases substance P-, calcitonin gene-related peptide- and dynorphin-immunoreactivity. Additionally, this compound decreases expression of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4D).