Somatostatin is an endogenous neuropeptide hormone found in the brain and pancreas. Somatostatin binds several isoforms of the somatostatin receptor, exhibiting anxiolytic, antiepileptic/anticonvulsant, and anorexigenic activities. In vivo, somatostatin improves performance in the light/dark avoidance test. Somatostatin also suppresses seizures and prevents the generation of seizures, potentially through modulation of GABA signaling. Somatostatin induces cell death under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. In tumor cells, somatostatin displays pro-apoptotic properties, potentially involving the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling. Somatostatin also limits food intake and inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon through alteration of Gβγ signaling and P/Q-type, N-type, and L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel signaling.