3-Tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (3-BHA) is one component of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This compound is commonly used as a food additive; it exhibits antioxidative and anticancer activities. In leukemia cells, 3-BHA decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, induces apoptosis and DNA damage, and suppresses cellular proliferation. In animal models, 3-BHA induces phase II enzymes, increasing expression of quinone reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. Some studies suggest that 3-BHA may also be mutagenic.