Chrysophanol is an anthraquinone originally found in species of Rheum. Chrysophanol exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibiotic, and anticancer activities. In animal models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, chrysophanol inhibits activation of the NALP3 inflammasome, ameliorating stroke-related pathology. Chrysophanol also decreases proliferation of Japanese encephalitis virus in vitro and displays antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In lung cancer cells, this compound increases levels of ROS and decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential, inducing necrotic cell death.