NAP is an octapeptide derived from activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP); it exhibits neuroprotective, antioxidative, cognition enhancing, anti-aging, and antipsychotic activities. NAP increases levels of Bcl-2 and activates MAPK/ERK signaling in retinal cells of diabetic mice, preventing retinal apoptosis. NAP also increases expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione transferase, and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in vivo, protecting against oxidative stress and improving memory performance in the radial arm maze. NAP decreases phosphorylation of tau protein in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), protecting spinal cord motor neurons and increasing life span. NAP shows some clinical benefit in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Additionally, this peptide also inhibits cognitive dysfunction in animal models of schizophrenia.