Zearalenone is a non-steroid mycotoxin initially produced by species of Fusarium that occurs as a contaminant in grain products such as cereal. Zearalenone exhibits estrogenic effects, activating estrogen receptors. In vivo, zearalenone causes hormonal effects and abnormal reproductive development. In male germ cells such as spermatocytes and spermatogonia, zearalenone induces apoptosis. In other in vitro models, this compound induces oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, altering levels of glutathione, TBARS, and HSP70.