Curcumin is the active component of turmeric, a member of the ginger family. Curcumin is a diarylheptanoid; it displays a wide variety of health benefits, including antioxidative, anticancer chemotherapeutic, antifungal, antibiotic, and atherosclerotic prophylactic activities. In an animal model of running-induced oxidative damage, curcumin decreases NADPH-oxidase mRNA and hydrogen peroxide levels, decreasing oxidative stress. Curcumin increases levels of APOBEC1, increasing beneficial ApoB-48 and decreasing harmful ApoB-100, facilitating increased clearance of lipid particles from plasma in vitro. In cellular models of cancer, curcumin activates mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1), activating JNK and inducing apoptosis. In cellular models of glioma, curcumin downregulates expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh), Smo, GLI1, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2, inhibiting proliferation and migration and increasing apoptosis; in related animal models, curcumin decreases tumor volume and prolongs survival. In an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease utilizing the Morris water maze, curcumin rescues cognitive deficits by inhibiting collapsing response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) and protecting against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced hippocampal damage. This compound inhibits fMLP- and LPS-induced suppression of neutrophil apoptosis by preventing activation of NF-κB and decreasing production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β. Curcumin also displays antibacterial and antifungal activities, inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis of Candida albicans in vitro.