Ginkgolide B is a terpene lactone found in Ginkgo that exhibits anti-atherosclerotic, neuroprotective, neuromodulatory, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. Ginkgolide B inhibits ATP release from thrombin-activated platelets, downregulates expression of PF4 and CD40L, and decreases phosphorylation of Syk and p38 MAPK, suppressing platelet function in cellular models of atherosclerosis. In neurons, ginkgolide B protects against ischemic injury in a PI3K-dependent manner. Ginkgolide B also inhibits glycine receptors and increases activation of PKA, Ca2+ signaling, and glutamate release. In animal models of cerebral edema, this compound prevents edema and decreases levels of malondialdehyde, activated caspase 3, and PARP and increases levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione.