Ginsenoside Rb1 is a triterpene saponin originally found in species of Panax that exhibits antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, orexigenic, and stimulatory activities. In animal models, ginsenoside Rb1 increases motor activity, food intake, and skeletal muscle ATP content, improving energy metabolism. Ginsenoside Rb1 also downregulates expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TNF-α in animal models of sepsis, protecting against liver and lung damage. Additionally, ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits glucose-induced neurotoxicity by preventing GSK-3β-stimulated CHOP induction. This compound also activates Nrf2 and increases expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), suppressing oxidative stress in vitro.