Matrine is an alkaloid found in Sophora that exhibits anticancer chemotherapeutic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anti-fibrotic, and antiepileptic/anticonvulsant activities. Matrine increases levels of Bax and decreases levels of Bcl-2 and VEGF-A in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and hepatoma cells, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell growth. Matrine also inhibits growth of hepatocellular carcinoma tumors in animal models. In animal models of chemical and thermal pain (writhing and tail flick tests), matrine decreases pain response in a κ-opioid receptor (κOR)- and μ-opioid receptor (μOR)-dependent manner. Additionally, matrine downregulates levels of glutamate and upregulates levels of GABA, regulating glutamate signaling and inhibiting inflammation and demyelination in animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) and decreasing seizures in separate animal models. Matrine also inhibits JAK/STAT signaling, decreasing pulmonary fibrosis in vivo.