Idebenone is a synthetic quinone coenzyme Q (CoQ) analog that promotes mitochondrial respiration, increases ATP production, and inhibits lipoperoxide formation. Idebenone exhibits antioxidative, neuroprotective, cognition enhancing, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic activities. In subjects with Alzheimer’s disease and in animal models of scopolamine-induced memory deficit, idebenone improves cognitive function and daily living aspects. Additionally, idebenone improves neurological function in subjects with Friedreich’s ataxia. In animal models of Duchennes Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), idebenone decreases cardiac inflammation and fibrosis and improves cardiac diastolic function and exercise performance.