n-Valeric acid is a low molecular weight carboxylic acid with a structure similar to γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This compound is found in Valeriana officinalis and is often used in the synthesis of esters. n-Valeric acid may also be produced by intestinal microflora and induces expression of Epstein-Barr virus-associated early antigen and viral capsid antigen in EBV-carrying human lymphoblastoid cells. Additionally, the α-keto-β-methyl derivative of n-valeric acid exhibits antioxidative activity, decreasing reactive oxygen species and lactate dehydrogenase in microglial cells under hypoxic or H2O2-stress-induced conditions. n-Valeric acid may inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC).