Vitexin is a naturally occurring flavonoid found in hawthorn leaves. Treatment of diabetic rats with vitexin has been found to result in pancreatic islet regeneration, prevention of beta-cell destruction, and suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced release of HMGB1 protein. Pretreatment of neonatal C57BL/6 mice with vitexin provided neuroprotection against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. In addition, vitexin is has shown anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antitumor activities in several cancer models and cell lines. It has been found to impact the JNK MAPK signaling pathway to inhibit growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.