α Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is an endogenous POMC-derived peptide in the pituitary involved in energy homeostasis and melanin production that activates melanocortin receptors. α-MSH exhibits anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, cognition enhancing, anxiolytic, and antioxidative activities. In vivo, α-MSH decreases the intensity of acetaminophen-induced liver lesions. In animal models of Alzheimer’s disease, α-MSH prevents loss of GABAergic neurons, decreases anxiety levels, and improves spatial memory. α-MSH also decrease apoptosis and oxidative stress in diabetic retinas by inhibiting upregulation of Foxo4 induced by glucose.