(-)-Gallocatechin is a polyphenol originally derived from a variety of sources, including green tea, coffee, safflower, and almonds; it is the epimer of (-)-epigallocatechin. (-)-Gallocatechin, like other catechins, exhibits a variety of beneficial properties, including anti-diabetic, antioxidative, antiviral, and antibacterial activities. In vivo, (-)-gallocatechin inhibits α-amylase, decreasing absorption of carbohydrates and preventing increases in blood glucose levels. This compound increases radical scavenging in vitro and also inhibits the hemorrhagic activities of matrix metalloproteinases. In vitro, (-)-gallocatechin directly inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and integrase, also upregulating expression of IL-2 and downregulating expression of IL-10 and TNF-α. (-)-Gallocatechin decreases osteoclastogenesis, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and resulting in a positive effect on bone metabolism. This compound also inhibits gram positive bacteria, preventing formation of Streptococcus-induced dental caries.