Aniracetam is a nootropic ampakine that exhibits anxiolytic and neuroprotective activities. Aniracetam acts as a positive allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors, slowing receptor deactivation; it also acts on D2 receptors, 5-HT2A receptors, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), likely displaying agonist activity. Aniracetam decreases anxiety in vivo in the condition fear stress test, elevated plus maze test, and in social interaction tests. Additionally, this compound inhibits H2O2-induced deficits in long-term potentiation and neuron viability. Aniracetam shows some clinical benefit in the enhancement of cognitive deficits associated with stroke and Alzheimer’s disease.