Azelastine is a second generation antihistamine that inhibits H1 histamine receptors. Azelastine exhibits anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tussive activities and is clinically used to treat allergic rhinitis. Azelastine activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, inducing desensitization. In mast cells, azelastine inhibits production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 and suppresses activation of NF-κB. Additionally, this compound decreases capsaicin-induced cough in vivo.