Budesonide is a corticosteroid with strong glucocorticoid and weak mineralocorticoid characteristics. Budesonide exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-asthma activities and is used clinically to treat Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). In animal models, budesonide induces pulmonary vasoconstriction. Budesonide inhibits expression of IL-32 in lungs and improves pulmonary function in animal models of cigarette smoking-induced COPD. Additionally, budesonide decreases TGF-β1-induced VEGF secretion and activation of ERK and Smad3 in lung fibroblasts. Budesonide also induces DNA hypermethylation.