Sodium butyrate is an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) that exhibits antidepressant, immunomodulatory, and anticancer activities. In animals undergoing the light dark test, tail suspension test, and forced swim test, sodium butyrate decreases restraint stress-induced depression. In prostate cancer cells, this compound inhibits cell growth, induces apoptosis, downregulates expression of Bcl-xl and Bcl-2, and upregulates expression of Bak and Bax. Additionally, sodium butyrate decreases release of IL-12 and increases production of IL-23 in dendritic cells. Sodium butyrate also alters RNA splicing.