Clenbuterol is an agonist at β2-adrenergic receptors. Clenbuterol exhibits neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities; it is also known for its ability to decrease adipose cell size and increase muscle fiber size. In vitro, clenbuterol upregulates histone demethylase JHDM2a through modulation of PKA/cAMP signaling. In vivo, this compound increases IGF signaling to induce hypertrophy in skeletal muscle. Additionally, clenbuterol inhibits kainic acid-induced apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, decreasing expression of inflammatory cytokines and increasing expression of BDNF and NGF in other animal models.