Erythropoietin is an endogenous glycoprotein hormone that is involved in the production of red blood cells; it binds the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and is clinically used to treat anemia. Erythropoietin exhibits pro-angiogenic, neuroprotective, cognition enhancing, and antidepressant activities. Erythropoietin decreases hepcidin levels and increases absorption of iron. In vitro, this compound stimulates angiogenesis and increases proliferation of smooth muscle fibers. When administered clinically, erythropoietin improves memory and mood.