Icaritin is a flavonoid compound found in Epimedium that exhibits anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antidepressant activities; it also acts as a phytoestrogen. Icaritin may act through corticosteroid signaling, as it increases glucocorticoid receptor and BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus. In animal models of stress, icaritin prevents development of social avoidance. This compound decreases levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α as well as PPARγ, GSK-3β, MCP-1, p38 JNK, c-myc, p-ERK, and p-Akt, inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, icaritin shows benefit as a potential treatment for bone disease, at it stimulates osteogenic differentiation and inhibits adipogenesis in vitro.