Imiquimod is an imidazoquinoline nucleoside analog that exhibits immunostimulatory, antiviral, neuromodulatory, and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities. Imiquimod activates toll-like receptors 7 and 8 (TLR7, TLR8), stimulating a Th1-based immune response. In animal models of Japanese encephalitis virus infection, administration of imiquimod increases overall survival rates. Imiquimod induces apoptosis in squamous cell carcinoma and other surface layer cancer cells and inhibits growth of tumors in vivo by stimulating targeted T cell and dendritic cell infiltration to tumor sites. Imiquimod also inhibits hedgehog signaling in vitro by activating adenosine receptors and inhibiting GLI activity. Additionally, this compound inhibits TREK (KCNK2) and TRAAK (KCNK4) K+ channels and acts as a partial antagonist at K(v)1.1 and K(v)1.2 K+ channels, increasing action potential duration and excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.