Neuromedin U is an endogenous neurohormone involved in maintenance of energy homeostasis. Neuromedin U exhibits anorexigenic, thermogenic, anxiolytic, hypertensive, and pro-inflammatory activities. In seasonal animals, neuromedin U increases core temperature and decreases food intake and body weight; these activities are mediated through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Neuromedin U exhibits anxiolytic benefit in animals undergoing the elevated plus maze test. Neuromedin U also inhibits gastric acid secretion and increases heart rate and blood pressure. Neuromedin U binds neuromedin receptors in ovarian cells, increasing production of progesterone. Additionally, this hormone upregulates inflammation-related cytokine gene expression in vitro in response to bacterial and viral pathogens.