Polydatin is a resveratrol-related glucoside originally found in Polygonum cuspidatum. Polydatin exhibits anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-allergic activities. In lung cancer cells, polydatin downregulates expression of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 and upregulates expression of Bax, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In animal models of sepsis, polydatin decreases sepsis-induced mortality and lung injury by suppressing production of COX-2, iNOS, and inflammatory cytokines. Polydatin also decreases the loss of mucosal barrier integrity in the small intestine due to OVA-induced allergy by inhibiting mast cell degranulation.