Xenopsin is a neurotensin-related octapeptide hormone originally found in amphibians. Xenopsin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity, decreasing vascular leakage in animal models of edema/inflammation. Xenopsin also increases firing rates of dopaminergic neurons. In ileal smooth muscle cells, xenopsin induces relaxation. Xenopsin also increases insulin release in pancreatic β-cells and stimulates meal-dependent exocrine pancreatic secretion.