Alternariol is a mycotoxin initially produced by species of Alternaria. Alternariol produces a weak estrogenic response in vitro and increases production of estradiol and progesterone. Alternariol is also cytotoxic; in macrophages, it increases DNA base oxidations and strand breaks. Also in macrophages, alternariol increases levels of cyclin B1 and p-cdc2, inducing G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. This compound also increases expression of DNA polymerase β through alterations in PKA-CREB signaling. Additionally, alternariol inhibits topoisomerase I and II, preventing DNA relaxation and cleavage.
Warning: Highly toxic. May be mutagenic.