Artesunate is a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia. Artesunate exhibits anticancer chemotherapeutic, antiviral, anti-angiogenic, and anti-parasitic activities. Artemisinins such as artesunate are best known for their antimalarial activity. Artesunate induces G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest, increases levels of Bax and caspase 3, and decreases levels of Bcl-2, inhibiting tumor growth in animal models of breast cancer. In models of cervical cancer, artesunate inhibits production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and decreases the number of Treg cells, also inhibiting tumor growth. Artesunate induces cell cycle arrest and inhibits replication of Polyoma virus as well. Additionally, this compound inhibits neovascularization and inflammation in corneas, increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and ROS levels, decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activating p38 MAPK.