Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic/anticonvulsant that also exhibits antipsychotic and anti-inflammatory activities. Carbamazepine inhibits voltage-gated Na+ channels, stabilizing the inactive conformation of the channel. Carbamazepine also potentiates GABA receptor signaling and inhibits ATP-sensitive K+ channels. Carbamazepine is clinically used to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorder, neuralgia/neuropathic pain, ADHD, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In animal models, carbamazepine decreases LPS-induced expression of TNF-α and IL-1β.