Moniliformin is a mycotoxin initially produced by species of Fusarium that can be found in grain and vegetable products. Moniliformin may damage myocardial tissue as a result of decreasing glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities, preventing glutathione radical scavenging. Moniliformin also decreases collagen synthesis and upregulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 13 (MMP1/13), inhibiting chondrocyte viability in vitro. In macrophages and dendritic cells, moniliformin alters CD surface marker expression and decreases endocytosis ability. Moniliformin may also inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase.