Melanotan-I (NDP-MSH) is a semi-synthetic melanocortin analog that activates the melanocortin receptor. NDP-MSH exhibits both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities in various models. In animal models of liver regeneration, NDP-MSH increases levels of IL-6, promotes signaling by STAT and SOCS, and inhibits the decline in IκBα levels. In animal models of peritonitis, NDP-MSH decreases neutrophil trafficking and inhibits vascular leakage and leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Additionally, NDP-MSH inhibits subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced stress, inflammation, vascular remodeling, and apoptosis in other animal models.