Pentoxifylline is a xanthine derivative that exhibits anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antithrombotic, analgesic, and anti-fibrotic activities. Pentoxifylline is clinically used to treat intermittent claudication, peripheral vascular disease, and neuropathies. Pentoxifylline is a non-selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that increases cAMP levels and activates PKA; it also inhibits adenosine A2 receptors. In vitro, pentoxifylline decreases phosphorylation of IκBα and suppresses activity of NFκB. This compound also inhibits inflammation-induced hyperalgesia and separately, suppresses fibrin-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the development of fibrosis in animal models.