Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is an endogenous prostaglandin synthesized from linolenic acid. PGE1 is clinically used for its vasodilatory activity as a treatment for erectile dysfunction. PGE1 also exhibits nephroprotective and pro-angiogenic activities. PGE1 decreases small intestine mucosa lesions in animal models of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion. PGE1 also improves renal function in subject with renal dysfunction or renal failure. Additionally, PGE1 enhances VEGF production in animal models of ischemia.