Sucralfate is a gastrointestinal motility modulator that acts as an antacid in the intestines. Clinically, sucralfate decreases gastric acid secretion, and increases mucous secretion and release of bicarbonate and prostaglandins. Sucralfate contains Al(OH)3, which neutralizes acid in the stomach, helping to prevent gastric damage. Sucralfate alters the structure of the intestinal epithelium and villi, increasing circulating eosinophil levels and mucous-producing cells in vivo; sucralfate also improves mucosal vascular integrity and blood flow. Components of sucralfate bind pepsin and bile acids as well. In intestinal epithelial cells, this compound activates IκB kinase, increases expression of COX-2, and inhibits H2O2-induced decreases in epithelial cell migration and proliferation, preventing gastric damage-like wound repair delays. Sucralfate also directly inhibits pepsin.