Xanthohumol (XN) is a prenylated flavonoid found in Humulus lupulus that exhibits anti-osteoporotic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, atheroprotective, neuroprotective, and estrogenic activities. XN alters NF-kB signaling, decreases expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1-β and MCP-1, and activated AMP-activated protein kinase. In a rodent model of cerebral ischemia, XN attenuates focal cerebral ischemia and improved neurobehavioral deficits by inhibiting ischemia-related increases in TNF-α, HIF-1α, iNOS, and free radical formation. XN also inhibits differentiation of preadipocytes and increases apoptosis in mature adipocytes, potentially playing a role in lipid metabolism. This compound may also play a preventative role against bone diseases, as it inhibits osteoclastogenesis by modulating RANKL signaling. XN also induces apoptosis and indirectly suppresses Notch signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma models.