Astaxanthin is a carotenoid found in sea-dwelling creatures such as shrimp, salmon, and algae; it displays neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, antioxidative, anti-diabetic, and cognition enhancing activities. Astaxanthin enhances performance in animals undergoing the water maze test, increases neuronal survival, and decreases hippocampal expression of TNF-α. Astaxanthin also decreases total cholesterol and triglyceride levels and increases levels and activity of glutathione and catalase in animal models. In diabetic animals, this compound decreases blood glucose levels, suppresses oxidative stress, and improves cognitive function. Additionally, astaxanthin protects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in vivo.