Lamotrigine exhibits antiepileptic/anticonvulsant, antidepressant, antinociceptive, and anxiolytic activities. Lamotrigine inhibits R-type Cav2.3 voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and voltage-gated Na+ channels, suppressing release of glutamate. In animals undergoing the forced swim test, lamotrigine decreases immobility time. Lamotrigine also increases pain thresholds in the formalin test and displays anxiolytic properties in the conditioned emotional response test. Lamotrigine may also exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, as it decreases levels of IL-1β, IL-2, and TNF-α in vitro.