Y27632 is a selective inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK); Y27632 binds to the catalytic site of ROCK, preventing binding of Ras-related GTPase Rho A, which is involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell adhesion, and cell migration. Y27632 inhibits downstream endothelin and TGF-β-related signaling. This compound exhibits neuroprotective and neuromodulatory activity, displaying benefit in animal models of Parkinson’s Disease and inhibiting conditioned place aversion in animal models of memory formation. Reduces dissociation-induced apoptosis in embryonic and neural stem cells. Increases stem cell cloning efficiency.